Let us start with the changes made in school education in newly announced National Education Policy 2020. The tradition of 10 + 2, which was earlier in the new education policy, will end now. Now the government is talking about 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 instead.
5 in 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 means – three years of pre-school and classes 1 and 2 followed by 3 means classes 3, 4 and 5 after that means classes 6, 7 and 8 And finally 4 means class 9, 10, 11 and 12.
In simple language, three years of pre-school (Anganwadi) and twelve years of schooling from 1st to 12th.
That is, children will start attending formal school at the age of 3 instead of 6 years. Till now, children used to go to the first class in 6 years, then even after the implementation of the new education policy, the child will be in the first class in 6 years, but the first 3 years will also be of formal education. The early years of play-school will also be included in school education.
Till now, pre-school was a concept in private schools.
This means that now Right to Education will be expanded. RTE was first implemented for children from 6 years to 14 years. Now it has been implemented for children from 3 years to 18 years.
This formula will be applicable to all government and private schools.
Apart from this, another important thing in school education is the language level. In the new education policy, 3 language formulas have been talked about, in which the education of mother tongue / local language up to class five has been talked about.
It has also been said that this process should be adopted up to class 8 where possible. Along with Sanskrit, emphasis has also been placed on studying in Indian languages like Tamil, Telugu and Kannada.
If you want schools in the secondary section, then you can give foreign language also as an option.
Some experts are telling that this is the agenda of RSS. People are also asking that if the child of South India comes to Delhi, he will read in Hindi, then how will he read?
The Tamil Nadu government has opposed this.
But it is not written anywhere in the 3 language formula that it will be binding on the state governments to do so.
It is also not that children will not be able to read English. The only thing in this is that two of the three languages should be Indian. Where books are not available in mother tongue, it has also been proposed to print books in mother tongue.
Board exam-National Education Policy 2020
The third thing in school education is the change in board exam. In the last 10 years, many changes were made in the board exam. Sometimes the 10th exam was optional, sometimes grades were talked about instead of numbers.
But now the change in exam pattern has been done in the new education policy. There will be board exams, and now there will be twice. But coaching will not be required to pass them.
The format of the exam will be changed to ‘assess the abilities’ of the students, not their memory. The Center argues that the pressure on numbers will end. The intention is to implement this change from the session 2022-23.
In addition to these board exams, state governments will also take examinations in classes 3, 5 and 8. To get these exams done, the work of making guide lines will be entrusted to the new agency, which will work only under the Ministry of Education.
IIT and NEET exam
In the new education policy, it has been said to conduct examinations from the National Testing Agency for admission to undergraduate courses.
Also, it has also been said to conduct Olympiad examinations at the regional level, at the state level and at the national level. For admission to IITs, it has been talked about making these exams the basis of admission to students.
In the same way, there has been talk of radical changes in the medical course. No new university will be set up to study only one subject. By 2030, different streams will be taught simultaneously in all universities. It has been said in the new education policy to make a separate education policy for medical studies.
What changed in undergraduate and postgraduate?
Similar changes have also been made in higher education in the National Education Policy 2020. Now in graduation (undergraduate), students will study a four-year course, in which there is also scope to leave the course in between.
On leaving the course in the first year, you will get a certificate, after the second year you will get an advance certificate and the degree after the third year, and after four years the degree will be with research.
In the same way, there will be three types of options in Post Graduate.
The first will be a two-year masters, for those who have done a three-year degree course.
The second option would be for those with a four-year degree course research. These students can do one-year masters separately.
And the third option would be a 5-year integrated program, in which both graduation and post-graduation can be done simultaneously.
Now PhD will be compulsory with four years degree coursework. There is a provision to discontinue MPhil in the new education policy.
There is a proposal in the new education policy for scholarship in higher education. For this, there is a matter of making the scope of the National Scholarship Portal more broad. Private institutions, which will provide higher education, will have to give scholarships from 25% to 100% to their 50% students – such provision has been made in this education policy.
The Higher Education Grants Commission will do the work of giving grants to higher education institutions. Apart from this, there will be responsibility to prepare rules, laws and guidelines for different departments of these institutions.