Haryanavi is the northernmost dialect of the Hindi language. It is also called a part of Khadi Boli or Jaatu. It is most widely spoken in the North Indian State of Haryana, and in Delhi also, generally by rural people and particularly by the Jats. Haryanvi is spoken in almost 50% of the districts of Haryana.
The districts adjoining Rajasthan speak different Rajasthani languages like Mewati in Mewat district, Ahirwati in Mahendragarh and Rewari districts, Bagri in Bhiwani, Sirsa and Hisar districts and Braj bhasha in Faridabad district and Gurgaon, Deswali in old Rohtak area comprising of part of Jhajjar, Sonipat.
The rest of the districts speak Haryanvi with the exception of Fatehabad and where the effect of Punjabi is predominant. Bangru is spoken in Jind District. Most famous of Haryanavi dialect Desari or Deshwali and ‘Khaddar are spoken in Sonipat and Rohtak Districts.
It is to be noted that there is a big population of Haryanavi language speakers in Pakistan. Jat of Pakistan have maintained their authenticity of Haryanvi lineage over the years. They proudly speak Haryanavi.
Haryanvi has various dialects. Bangaru, also known as Jaatu (literally, language of Jats), is most widely spoken followed by the Haryanvi spoken in the Khāddar areas close to Yamuna, which is akin to Khariboli and is spoken by Rors.
Haryanvi belongs to the Western Hindi family of languages. It is usually understood to be a dialect of Hindi and not a separate language; it has many similarities with Khariboli, the prestige dialect of Hindi.
Dr. Mahasingh Poonia, Director, Dharohar Haryana Museum and head, department of Hindi, University College, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra said that Sanskrit gave birth to Haryanvi.
“The Hariyanvi dialect is directly related to the Vedic period, so many words of Sanskrit language prevailing in the vedic period are still present in the Hariyanavi dialect”, he said.
Poonia adds that Bagri dialect is spoken in some parts of Sirsa, Hisar, Bhiwani, Mahendergarh, Gurgaon and Faridabad districts near the soil of Rajasthan due to sandy dunes and small hills.
Marriage and general social contact in border areas is common. In such a situation, it is natural to have an impact on each other’s language. He said that while speaking speakers of Haryana where Punjabi language is dominated says ‘Khanda, Pinda, Janda’, while Rohtaki using Deswali would say ‘Khata, Peeta, Jaata’, Bagri speaker would say ‘Khawoo, Piyoo, Jawoo’, and Braj speaker would say ‘Khayo, Piyao and Jayoo’.
Ranbir Singh Phaugat, noted cultural historian from Haryana observed that the difference in Hayanavi lies in use of verb, adverb and pronunciation. “Speakers of every dialect stress on different syllables while speaking”, Phogat added.
On the fast disappearance of Haryanvi dialect, Rohtak MP Deepender Singh Hooda had raised the voice in parliament urging for inclusion of Haryanavi language in the 8th Schedule of Constitution in 2012.
While highlighting the ancient and mythological background of Haryanvi language, Hooda said that saints, poets and litterateurs like Saint Nischal Das, Garib Das Haryanvi, Mahakavi Surdas Hariyanvi Brij, Ahmed Baksh, Shankardas Meerut, Pt. Lakhmi Chand, Mange Ram, Mehar Singh, Nand Lal had worked on Haryanvi literature for the last 400 years.