Haryana came into being on 1st November, 1966, as a result of bifurcation of Punjab. Geographically, the river Ghaggar is in the Southeast of Haryana, the Shivalik Hills are in its north east, the river Yammuna is in the east, the Aravali Hills are in the south and the Thar Desert in the south west of this region.
It is a broad level plain located on the watershed between the basins of the rivers—Indus and Ganga and contains the alluvia of both the rivers. “It is the true frontier of the Hindustan ”-it is a tract full of history, no field of battle has been more fateful than Panipat, Tarawari and Karnal towns in Haryana.
Politically, Haryana is surrounded in the northeast by Himachal Pradesh, in the north-west by Punjab. In the south and southwest by Rajasthan, and in the east by Uttar Pradesh. It was the smallest state of federal India at that time of its inception.
The people of Haryana are hardy, simple and straight-forward, peace-loving, but in the time of need they have risen to dizzy heights. They constitute a virile race of sturdy fighters and indefatigable cultivators, wielding the sword with as much time of crises as they work the plough in times of peace.
The people of Haryana belong to various castes and creed. In matters concerning the tradition of their respective communities. They don’t compromise, yet in so far as their attitude towards as a whole is concerned they are largely free from communal feel. Particularly, the people in the villages belonging to different castes and groups live in peace and harmony. In this sense, we can say that Haryana is a living symbol of ‘unity in diversity’.
The dominating community of Haryana is the Jat, concentrating in the districts of Rohtak, Hissar, Karnal, Gurgaon and Mahendergarh. The Ahirs are mainly populated in the districts of Mahendergarh, Gurgaon and Jhajjar tehsil of Rohtak district.
The Rajputs are scattered all over the region. They mostly habitat the districts of Karnal, Kurukshetra, Ambala and Gurgaon. Like the Jats and Ahirs their main occupation is Agriculture.
The other community of the region is Gujjar. They are mainly settled in the Khadar area of Haryana.
The Meos residing in the hilly tract of the district Gurgaon and more dominant in Ferozepur Jhirka tehshil and the western parts of Nuh tehsil. “They are neither Hindus nor Muslims; they are happy blend of the two. They observe the feast of both but fasts of none.
Like the Rajputs, the Brahmins are scattered all over the region. They too are largely agriculturists. However, a section of Brahmins work as priests.
During the last quarter of the 18th century Haryana presented a picture of general decay and disintegration. It was a hunting ground of freebooters and adventurers. It was a no man’s land where the Sikhs and the Marathas were in constant conflict for supremacy; this made the life of the inhabitants insecure and miserable. Towards the close of the century, George Thomas, an Irish adventurer, came on the political scene of Haryana. He ousted the Sikhs and carved out a portion of the region for himself with Hansi as the capital. This portion was free from Ghagghar in the north to Beri in the south and from Meham in the east to Behadara in the west.
Credit:*-Freedom Struggle in Haryana And The Indian National Congress. Special Thanks to Dr. Satish Tyagi.